Currently, the most popular are wooden sleepers. The smallest spread in practice have reinforced concrete and steel sleepers. However, production of concrete sleepers is steadily growing. Wooden Sleepers are made mostly of conifers such as pine, fir, larch. In the production of wooden sleepers in the first place, it should set an appointment sleepers, because there are three main Purpose: main tracks mostly for the 1 st and 2 nd grades, for the main ways the 3rd and 4 th classes for ways to grade 5. Secondly, choose a cross-sectional shape, which is also divided into three categories: lumber, half-edged, edging. The main advantages of using wooden sleepers combines ease of handling, relatively low prices, low sensitivity to temperature fluctuations.

The main disadvantage is this kind of ties include the use of wood as raw material for the production of a category do not fully renewable resources, the rot in the ground fastening sleepers with the rails, rapid wear. In connection with the highlighted shortcomings of wooden sleepers, there is now a process of replacing this type of reinforced concrete sleepers, despite the trend increase in the cost of metal and cement. Reinforced concrete sleepers have the form reinforced concrete beams with variable cross section. Production of concrete sleepers made with advanced tension reinforcement. In practice, there are the following way tension reinforcement: 1) the mechanical method carried out using hydraulic or screw jacks, and 2) electrothermal method is used to lengthen the valve to the desired value by means of electric current used for heating valves; 3) electrothermomechanical way.

This way of stressing the steel combines mechanical and electrothermal method. The main advantage of concrete sleepers as compared with wooden sleepers is high degree of durability and long life. The disadvantages of concrete sleepers is the high cost of raw materials used for production, toughness, leading to a high degree of wear, rail wear and tires wheelsets. To address the shortcomings, and in particular to compensate for the stiffness in the production of this type of sleepers using resilient pads between the sleepers and rails. However, the production technology concrete sleepers leads to a significant increase in the cost of the path. Metal sleepers in practice are rarely used, because there is a lot of noise when moving trains, electrical conductivity, which excludes the possibility of their placement on the lines of the difficulty of compacting ballast under the sleepers. However, despite some difficulties arising in the operation of metal ties, they have significant advantages, namely, long service life compared with other types of sleepers, easily recyclable, economical, because after processing retain up to 40% of its value, the ability to use almost all over the world in connection with that can withstand high temperatures. Also among the advantages of metal sleepers need to distinguish the presence of a small number of fasteners and light weight. Among the shortcomings of the most significant is lack of electrical insulation track circuits. But this lack of ties eliminated by the use of different insulating gaskets.

The Choice Of Interior Doors

In the process of building a modern country cottage or apartment in the overhaul, a difficult question concerning the choice of the doors will always be sick. Due to the huge number of offerings on the market and in trade points of the country's large numerical diversity of doors, we finally determine the choice of doors practically not easy. That directly concerns the entry door, in this case all that much easier. It remains only think about what kind of need a door – single-or double-wing, armored or standard, and, of course, a desired color. With respect to interior doors, here is much more complicated. Existing doors are offered for installation as interior, fully capable to mislead anyone. The problem lies not only in the choice of base material, which is released directly from the interior doors, home problem is the correct choice of type of doors.

Because there are not only single and double, as well as sliding interior doors, which can actually be implemented as from whole cloth, and from team in the individual fragments. To buy a door and not feel sorry about it afterwards, you must decide what kind of door is best suited to the planned interior room, and a choice must be performed by the surface area facilities in each room. Directly in small areas of rooms, will best be approached the door of the sliding type. In addition, you should know that the best material of interior doors, still remains tree. The dignity of such interior doors many times better than other possible such materials. Directly, such as doors, combined with certain accessories, excellent help with the creation of any design. Except This, wooden interior doors are lightweight, unlike other complex in design doors. It should also be noted that the wooden doors have long-term work.

Modern technology, used in the manufacture of doors, making them water-resistant, resistant to deformation as a result of kolebaniytemperatur, and in addition to excellent sound insulation. Almost any wood interior doors – and ekochistye sposoyuny not release hazardous substances. In addition, only the wooden interior doors, there are currently very diverse accessories such as hinges, doorknobs, and decorative objects including glasses. K listed these advantages must be added another, and relatively high cost of such doors. Excellent choice of these interior doors, doors can become Pope Carlo directly produced in the best tradition of Italian craftsmen. These doors there are so many, whose popularity is due to be presentable, practicality and durability. In addition, these doors also meet all requirements that just will not be superfluous in an apartment house or multi-room apartment.