A growing number of experts think about the further development of their careers. With the aim to improve their skills and value in the labor market, many are leaving for an internship or temporary work in Europe or the USA. However, in Western countries has its own system of personnel evaluation criteria: to get a good job, a specialist is necessary to confirm their competence. One of these criteria is the presence of Certificate ECDL – European Computer Driving License. Certification Program ECDL (European Computer Driving License – European Computer Driving License), founded in 1984, today is a leading global standard for computer skills. This is a single International Certificate, also known as ICDL (International Computer Driving License) and proof that the holder is a competent computer user. In the United States and Europe ECDL has long been accepted standard of computer literacy. In many countries, ECDL certificate is a mandatory requirement for employment in government agencies, which guarantees the overall level of competence employees.
ECDL certification is widely used by international organizations and educational institutions. Russian employers the choice of personnel is likely to focus on certifications, confirming the competence of the candidate. In such cases, the important role played by the presence of the candidate for the ECDL – the only certification for users of information systems that are fully translated into Russian. Presence ECDL certificate is not only facilitates the employment of a specialist, but also helps your career, because, statistically, certified professionals earn on average 20-30% more. Students and novice professionals passed this certification are more likely to participate in international exchange programs, and to enroll in foreign universities ECDL certificate may substitute exams choosing training center for ECDL, pay attention to compliance examinations, and of the international model. To obtain the certificate you will be invited following exams: 1) Fundamentals of Information Technology 2) Work on your computer. Main operations control file system 3) Word Processing 4) Spreadsheets 5) Databases 6) Presentation 7) Information and Communication Major centers also offer corporate training companies' employees.
Man as part of the universe, and is a solid unit that is inextricably linked with the world of nature and society. Over a long period of global history, this relationship was relatively stable and, in some measure, predictable manner. If we consider man as energy-system in which there is a continuous process of updating the information on two levels, then we can talk about the speed of updating information in the system genetic (biological) and vnegeneticheskom (social) level. Since any periodic process can be taken as a reference, then we can talk about the reference frequency of information update on the first and second levels. For clarity, we consider the process of Fig. 4, where the upper part shows the total duration of conventional global historical process.
In order to determine the reference frequency of biological time, was selected statistics of different families, of which the normal distribution revealed that the average age of mothers at first birth is 25 years. Unit divided by the period f = 1 / (25) was taken as the reference frequency fb of biological time. One of the main characteristics of human society – the period of the life of technology in key sectors of society. In the Middle Ages during the life of technology was sometimes several hundred, and in earlier periods of history and a thousand years. But with time during the life of technology has reduced to decades. Thus we can conclude that the rate of renewal Information on the social level is not constant T = 300-150 years (currently 3-5 years, depending on the area of knowledge).
But programs can not see the data, in this case requires laborious manual work. Digital photo recovery also depends on the data format (JPG, TIFF or RAW) and the firmware version a particular camera. Shut in flash memory is correct, use the "Safely Remove Hardware". In the FCC and other similar techniques follow the battery and turn off no earlier than the end record to the card. Mechanical breakdowns. Due to its compactness and functionality of the stick are very popular. Therefore, they are often subjected to various tests.
Level of preparedness to him at all flash drives are different. Some rather weak body, while others – mount connector USB, the third – of the PCB board is too thin, etc. Mechanical stresses create cracks and lead to a breach of contact. From bumps and falls suffered crystal. Such injuries is not hopeless. You can replace the parts, re-establish contact, to say goodbye to the data is possible only in case cracked chip memory. If you have no time to be careful with the flash drive, choose the most durable devices: a metal sealed enclosure.
Memory cards are best kept in their cases. If possible, try not to touch the flash drive inserted into the port USB. Not only can you damage it, but also to get closure. If the USB Flash Drive was in the water, especially sea, do not have "self" as the lack of drying can destroy the chances of spasenie.Elektricheskie and heat injury. Unstable power supply and discharge the static, weak protection against fluctuations voltage wiring old – all of which can cause malfunction flash, and the coincidence of adverse conditions lead to burnout of the controller and the elements of tying. And if it is wrong to connect the cable USB-port that goes from the front panel connector of the motherboard, connect the device to instantly burn up. Some plastic cases can not provide good heat and when working parts can be loaded overheat and fail, and even proplavit housing. Take care of the grounding and power quality computers. Before you connect the flash drive, touch a hand system unit. Of static and heat are well protected Flash drives in metal cases. Failure of the controller. The controller is all flash drives and many memory cards. In some situations (eg, intermittent power) the firmware is locked and unresponsive OS. In this If the device is recognized as a Generic Drive with a capacity of zero, the data in the usual way are not available. They can be considered directly from a memory chip on a special stand. Fix the fault can be achieved by restoring the firmware controller using technological tools. Must be protected from static and flow control pitaniya.Iznos memory. USB-drive is recognized, but read errors due to defects on the physical level. Flash pamyatimeet limited number of rewrites. A number of service fields file system can be rewritten with each update any of the files. It is these cells first to fail. To prevent this, use technology called "wear leveling": frequently changed data is moved within the address space of flash memory. If this does not help correct the situation can low level format with hiding defektov.Pri constant updating of data failures may begin as early as 1-2 years. For hedging try the phasing out of sticks 'experienced', or use them to store less critical data. The solution of the more serious problems, of course, best left to professionals. Take care of your flash drive, and she, in turn, will take care of your data!